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Root Cause of Asthma Attack, Respiratory Natural Treatment, Prevention

There is overwhelming evidence that asthma is closely connected with lifestyle, and especially diet. This is strongly suggested by the fact that asthma is very common in Western industrialized countries but rare in poorer Asian and African countries. However, when these poorer populations exchange their traditional foods for Western food then asthma rates begin to climb. "Conventional medicine seeks to reduce this inflammation by using anti-inflammatory medications, or use pharmaceutical inhalants to temporarily dilate the passageway. There are two limitations to this approach. Firstly, every drug has the risk of side effects. Secondly, the drug approach does not offer a long term solution. In my opinion, there are natural approaches that work to treat the cause of asthma and offer long term success." Mark Stengler ND

Beware of Conventional drugs used for treating asthma

Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease in the developed world. Dr. John Mills MD - "Conventional drugs used for treating asthma, particularly steroids, can impair immune function and lead to more serious health problems. "Doctors tell you that steroids (cortisone, prednisone) only cause side effects after many years. But new research shows that permanent damage is immediate and devastating. Studies show that steroids cause permanent, debilitating effects after a single dosage. Steroids are probably the most sleazy of modern day medications" John Mills, former professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco and chief of infectious diseases at San Francisco General Hospital.

Dr. Lisa Landymore-Lim wrote all about this in her book " Poisonous Prescriptions"asking, ‘Do Antibiotics Cause Asthma and Diabetes?’ We are now even beginning to question the role of antibiotics as a cause of cancer since they do lead to pathogen overgrowth especially in the area of yeast and fungi. Chris Woollams writes, “It is estimated that 70 per cent of the British population have a yeast infection. The primary cause of this is our love of antibiotics.

In the past few years heavy antibiotic use has been linked to the inflammatory bowel disorder, Crohn's disease, and to children developing allergies such as hayfever and asthma. An association between antibiotic exposure and asthmais accepted both by the medical profession and the Department of Social Security in the UK and the Health Department in Australia. However, general practitioners and the general public are either apparently unaware of this association, or have not drawn from it what I consider to be a logical conclusion

asthma and allergy symptoms The FDA has recently called into question the safety of a popular allergy and asthma drug, Singulair, after reports linked it to suicidal behavior and mood changes. Over the course of the past year, the drug’s manufacturer, Merck, changed the product labeling 4 times to include various warnings of side effects, including tremors, anxiousness, depression, and suicidal behavior. The drug currently pulls in $4.3 billion dollars in sales annually.

Asthma are abnormal inflammatory responses of the immune system to dust, pollen, a food or some other substance. Those that involve an antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE) occur immediately or within an hour. Reactions may include coughing, sneezing, runny nose, hives, diarrhoea, facial swelling, shortness of breath, a swollen tongue, difficulty swallowing, lowered blood pressure, excessive perspiration, fainting, anaphylactic shock or even death.

Kenneth A. Bock, MD - "Allergies are adverse immune reactions to every day substances that most people can tolerate. "Allergens," as they’re called, can include inhalants such as pollens (e.g., ragweed), dust, cat hair or mold, Allergens also are found in foods including wheat, peanut or egg. These two types of allergens-food and inhalant-can join forces to increase your suffering.

Study links asthma with indoor swimming pools - Researchers compared the rates of asthma in 13 and 14-year-old children in 21 European countries and the number of chlorinated swimming pools per 100,000 people. They found that after taking into account other factors such as climate, childhood asthma and wheeze increased by 2-3 percent for every indoor swimming pool, according the research published in the journal Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

According to Dr. Bock MD, deadly modern toxins, nutritional deficiencies, metabolic imbalances, genetic vulnerabilities and assaults on the immune and gastrointestinal systems trigger most of the asthma and allergy symptoms.

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Food Allergies and Chemical Sensitivities Trigger Asthma

Asthma is notorious for being triggered by inhaled allergens but this does not mean that such triggers are a basic cause of asthma. The main problem is that there is an underlying chronic inflammation and oversensitivity of the airways which then reacts indiscriminately to a wide range of inhaled irritants. One common cause of a chronic inflammatory setting is the presence of hidden food allergies.

Home base business opportunity ‘Hidden’ means that people are not aware of the allergy because usually the body does not react to an allergenic food to which it is exposed every day. Most asthmatics have been shown to have such hidden food allergies. The most common foods to which asthmatics react are cows’ milk and cheese, gluten, eggs, nuts, and seafood. Drinking unpasteurized (raw) milk can protect children against asthma and hayfever, according to a study of nearly 15,000 children published in the May issue of Clinical and Experimental Allergy.

The same applies to chemical sensitivities. The most common reactions for asthmatics are caused by sulfur dioxide and sulfites (codes 221 to 224), by monosodium glutamate or MSG (621 to 623), the yellow food dye tartrazine (code 102), and also salicylates such as aspirin. MSG is not necessarily declared as such on a food label, it may just be called hydrolyzed vegetable protein, vegetable or Thai seasoning or natural flavoring. All food additives are potentially dangerous and best avoided, except a few such as vitamin C or citric acid. Medical researchers think mainly in terms of inhaled allergens, but in response to a study showing that cases of wheezing disorders in preschool children in the UK doubled between 1990 and 1998 (The Lancet (Vol 357, p 1821), even they admit that there must be other unknown factors present to explain this dramatic increase.

The immune system plays a central role in the health of the individual. It protects us from disease by recognizing and eliminating or removing foreign material from our bodies. Exposure to a variety of chemicals can effect this system adversely; putting us at risk for illness and disease. Allergy is caused by an oversensitive immune system, which leads to a misdirected immune response. The immune system normally protects the body against harmful substances, such as bacteria and viruses. In contrast, an allergic reaction is when the immune system reacts to substances (allergens) that are generally harmless and in most people do not cause an immune response.

Asthma and Allergies in Children - Dr. Doris Rapp M.D

Dr. Rapp is board certified in pediatrics and pediatric allergy. She was a Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at the State University of New York at Buffalo until January 1996. She practiced traditional allergy for 18 years and then, in 1975, began incorporating the principles of environmental medicine in her pediatric allergy practice. She is a certified specialist in Environmental Medicine. She has also produced numerous educational videos and audiotapes for the public, educators and physicians. These demonstrate the dramatic physical and behavioral changes in both children and adults that can be produced using a more precise method of allergy testing called Provocation/Neutralization.

It has been estimated that about 90 million Americans suffer from food allergies especially gluten sensitivity. According to a new study in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, there is a strong correlation between gluten intolerance Common Household Cleaners Can Trigger Asthma
Fume-Emitting Heaters Also Asthma Risksand asthma- celiac disease confers a 1.6-fold increased risk of asthma. Wheat and gluten are often a problem for those with asthma and hay fever. If you have any problem with mucus, avoid all gluten products initially together with all foods containing lactose. About 1.5 million Americans are thought to suffer from it.

In her breakthrough book, Is This Your Child? - Dr. Rapp identifies the major symptoms of potentially unrecognized allergies in children and adults, suggesting possible sensitivities to dust, mold, pollen, foods or chemicals. Allergies are much more than high fever, asthma and itchy skin. It is possible to identify allergies by simply looking at someone. At times it is surprisingly easy to find and eliminate the cause.

The typical clues of allergies and environmental illness can include any combination of the following: Rubbing Nose Upwards; Eye Wrinkles; Dark Eye Circles Sudden Aggression; Scarlet Earlobes A Spacey Look; Extreme Activity Changes Wiggly Legs; Red Cheeks A Mottled Tongue.

Non-Breastfed Infants Increases Asthma Risk

Introducing milk other than breast milk to infants younger than 4 months old increases the risk of asthma and atopy (a predisposition to certain allergies). In the first study of its kind, the investigators followed over two thousand children from before birth through their 6th birthday, questioning their parents regarding various manifestations of asthma and allergy. Children who were fed milk other than breast milk before 4 months of age experienced higher rates of all indicators of asthma and allergy, the report indicates.

Such children were 25% more likely to be diagnosed with allergy and 30% more likely to have a positive skin test for allergies than were children who received only breast milk during their early months. The total duration of exclusive breastfeeding was less important, though longer breastfeeding was associated with less asthma and allergy. Because the introduction of non-breast milk was more closely associated with asthma and atopy than the duration of breastfeeding, the investigators postulate that the exclusion of potentially allergy-causing components in milk other than breast milk may account for the protective effect. British Medical Journal September 25, 1999;319:815-819.

Cow's milk allergy is the most common food allergy in young children. Fortunately, most babies outgrow milk allergies by their second or third year. In the meantime, parents of babies with milk allergies can be reassured that - although there is no treatment that can cure milk allergies - symptoms can be controlled through a dairy-free diet. Today, supermarket milk is a brew of hormones, chemicals, DDT, fungicides, defoliants and radioactive fallout, produced by artificially inseminated creatures forced to stand around in muddy feed lots all day long.

Some Other Contributing Factors A headline in New Scientist (19 July 2001) says “Margarine linked to dramatic asthma rise”. This was a study of children in two rural Australian towns. Toddlers who consume large amounts of margarine and foods fried in vegetable oil may be twice as likely to develop asthma as others who eat less of these foods. This confirms the well known fact that (omega-6) linoleic acid increases inflammatory tendencies; this applies generally to polyunsaturated seed oils.

Finnish researchers came to a similar conclusion. They found that children who eventually developed allergies ate less butter and more margarine compared with children who did not develop allergies. Of course, health authorities have been urging us for decades to consume more polyunsaturated fats and less saturated fat thereby increasing the severity of asthma.

A study in the British Medical Journal (September 25, 1999; 319, 815-819) shows that giving babies other milk than breast milk before the age of four months greatly increases the risk of asthma and allergies. Children with low birth weight of less than 1 kg in the US had an asthma rate of 21% compared to 9% for children with higher birth weight.

Another New Scientist headline reads “Weekly swimming linked to lung damage” (28 September 2001). This article reports that children who use chlorinated swimming pools every week get lung damage just like smokers. Also lifeguards who work in indoor pools have an increased incidence of asthma.

A surprising Japanese study found that school children who ate more fish had also higher rates of asthma (Preventive Medicine February 2002;34:221-225). As we know from other studies that fish oil and even consumption of oily fish reduce inflammations and asthma, the conclusion is that in this case the high rates of mercury in Japanese coastal waters are the cause of such fish causing increased asthma. There are also various reports of vaccinations causing asthma. One such case is described under the title: “A case of asthma after vaccination against smallpox.” (Ekbom, K. .Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1966; 464:170-1).

Finish researchers found that mothers can prevent eczema and asthma in their children by taking Probiotics (acidophilus-bifido bacteria) while they are pregnant and breastfeeding. Babies normally get their mother's bacteria as they travel down the birth canal, but modern medicine is preventing this. Babies born by caesarian section are inoculated with hospital bacteria such as Streptococci and Clostridia.

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Studies Confirm Unvaccinated Children Have Less Asthma

Several clinical studies have confirmed an association between vaccination and asthma. A team of New Zealand researchers followed 1,265 children born in 1977. Of the children who were vaccinated 23 percent had asthma episodes. A total of 23 children did not receive the DTP vaccines, and none of them developed asthma (Kemp et al., 1997).

In an article entitled "The Dark Side of Immunizations?," Science News reviews new reports by researchers that show that vaccinated children have a higher incidence of asthma and diabetes than do unvaccinated children . Science News reports that a study by researchers at the Wellington School of Medicine in New Zealand found that unvaccinated New Zealand children report fewer cases of asthma than vaccinated children.

Another study by New Zealand researchers published in the November 1997 Epidemiology analyzed the health of 1,265 people born in 1977. Of these, 23 didn't get any childhood vaccinations and none of them suffered childhood asthma. Among the 1,242 who got polio and DPT shots, more than 23 percent later had episodes of asthma. Science News adds that a 1994 survey of 446 British children, most of them eight years old, showed that 91 received no vaccinations in early childhood. Only one child out of 91 got asthma. About 11 percent of the other 355 children who had been vaccinated with pertussis and other vaccines had asthma.

Several asthma and allergy researchers have found results similar to the earlier described relationship between immunization and IDDM. A group from New Zealand (Kemp, Pearce, Fitzharriset al.1997) found that asthma and allergies were more common in children that received pertussis vaccine than in those that were not immunized. Similar results have been suggested by others (Odent, Culpin & Kimmel, 1994) . More recently Dr. Julian Hopkin presented data at the British Thoracic Society meeting in 1997 which linked asthma to immunization. He has also published data that early immunization with BCG in Japan is associated with a decreased risk of IDDM (Shirakawa, Enomoto, Shimazuet al.1997).

Athma, Allergies and Vaccines

Need help? Several asthma and allergy researchers have found results similar to the earlier described relationship between immunization and IDDM. A group from New Zealand (Kemp, Pearce, Fitzharriset al.1997) found that asthma and allergies were more common in children that received pertussis vaccine than in those that were not immunized. Similar results have been suggested by others (Odent, Culpin and Kimmel, 1994) . More recently Dr. Julian Hopkin presented data at the British Thoracic Society meeting in 1997 which linked asthma to immunization. He has also published data that early immunization with BCG in Japan is associated with a decreased risk of IDDM (Shirakawa, Enomoto, Shimazuet al.1997).

The culprit behind asthma and allergies: vaccination A summary of published medical research findings pertaining to the atopic effect of vaccination. Appears here as published in New Vegetarian and Natural Health Magazine, Winter 2000 issue.

Can vaccines cause immune dysfunction resulting in allergies, asthma and anaphylaxis? Several asthma and allergy researchers have found results similar to the earlier described relationship between immunization and IDDM. A group from New Zealand (Kemp, Pearce, Fitzharriset al.1997) found that asthma and allergies were more common in children that received pertussis vaccine than in those that were not immunized. Similar results have been suggested by others (Odent, Culpin and Kimmel, 1994) . More recently Dr. Julian Hopkin presented data at the British Thoracic Society meeting in 1997 which linked asthma to immunization. He has also published data that early immunization with BCG in Japan is associated with a decreased risk of IDDM (Shirakawa, Enomoto, Shimazuet al.1997).

The Institute of Medicine's Immunization Safety Review Committee held a public meeting in Seattle, Washington on November 12, 2001 to review the "Possible association between multiple immunizations in newborns and infants and immune system dysfunction." The Institute of Medicine Report stated... "The committee looked at five studies examining multiple vaccinations and their potential to cause allergic diseases, which reflect a hypersensitivity of the immune system to relatively harmless agents in the environment, like pollens, dust mites, insect venom, and specific foods. Some, but not all, of these studies suggested that certain vaccines increase the risk of developing allergic disorders. Methodological weaknesses and inconsistent findings among the studies, however, led the committee to conclude that there is inadequate evidence to either accept or reject a causal relationship between multiple immunizations and increased risk of allergic diseases, particularly asthma."

Why the "surge" in anaphylactic children entering school a decade ago? These children were among the first to receive an additional vaccination, Hib meningitis. Is it possible that the Pertussis and Hib vaccine, both shown below to cause allergic responses, are creating a hypersensitive immune system in some children? Has any study looked into what happens to atopy incidence and IgE levels when 5 vaccines are given concurrently in infants?

Vaccines: Are They Really Safe And Effective?Possible association between multiple immunizations in newborns and infants and immune system dysfunction

The exact numbers of children affected by anaphylaxis are difficult to pinpoint. A study in Arch Intern Med 2001 Jan 8;161(1):15-2, Anaphylaxis in the United States: an investigation into its epidemiology, concluded with "The occurrence of anaphylaxis in the US is not as rare as is generally believed. On the basis of our figures, the problem of anaphylaxis may, in fact, affect 1.21% (1.9 million) to 15.04% (40.9 million) of the US population."PMID 11146694

Pediatr Res 1987 Sep;22(3):262-7 Murine responses to immunization with pertussis toxin and bovine serum albumin: I. Mortality observed after bovine albumin challenge is due to an anaphylactic reaction..........the results of our experiments have established that the disease induced by co immunizing mice with Ptx and BSA is due to an immediate type hypersensitivity. PMID 3309858

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Natural Remedies for the Relief of Asthma and Allergies

Glutathione Role in Health as an AntioxidantIncreasing glutathione levels in the lungs may be beneficial in lung disease. Although there are few studies using glutathione (GSH) enhancement therapies or nebulized (aerosolized and inhaled) glutathione in lung diseases, there is good data (mostly in animal models) suggesting increasing the potent antioxidant and free-radical scavenger glutathione would be beneficial in certain degenerative lung conditions associated with increased free radical load including asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis obliterans.

Dr. Jean Marcoux M.D. "Almost everyone I put on Immunocal tells me that they feel better as soon as they start taking the product. This is explained by the fact that Immunocal brings to all the cells in our body, the building blocks necessary to produce glutathione, a small protein that each cell needs to function properly. In severe asthmatics taking Immunocal, the attacks become less frequent and less severe. The need for medication is decreased, they sleep better, they don't miss work or school as often, resulting in a better quality of life." Dr. Jean Marcoux is a Board Certified Allergist, Immunologist

"Doctors have used glutathione-promoting drugs to treat many lung diseases including asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Newer potential therapeutic roles can be found for cigarette smoke damage, pulmonary fibrosis and other illnesses." - American Journal of Medical Science 307: 119-127, 1994

Dr. Jimmy Gutman, M.D - "Clinical evidence links low glutathione levels to the most common illnesses of our time as well as newly emerging diseases. Glutathione levels diminish as we age and many diseases normally associated with aging have been linked to glutathione deficiency."

Dr. Allan Somersall M.D - "To raise glutathione levels is to reduce premature oxidation, to quench destructive free radicals and help detoxify the poisons inside each cell when it needs to. Only Immunocal is clinically proven to do that in a safe, effective and convenient way."

Glutathione Deficiency Can Cause Serious Health Conditions"Dr. Gutman, MD

"My daughter used to suffer from life threatening asthma attacks. Hospital admissions, steroids,specialists etc. etc. She turned 16 last Friday and is passionate about sports. She's been on Immunocal to boost her glutathione level for a year now . Not one attack, no steroids, not even a steroid inhaler. It's been simply miraculous! She takes Immunocal for the clinically proven and documented substantial effects of increasing athletic performance... At 16 , that is what motivates her infinitely more than an optimally functioning immune system. Her asthma has all but disappeared.

The Homeopathic Treatment of Asthma

Homeopaths have a long history of successful allergy treatment, and they have made some important contributions to present understanding of allergies.

Sir William Osler, considered the Father of Modern Medicine, was known to say, "Asthmatics don't die, they just 'pant into old age.'" However, new research on the homeopathic treatment of asthma that has been published in The Lancet (December 10, 1994) suggests that relief is in sight for asthma sufferers.

Research conducted by professors at the University of Glasgow, Europe's largest medical school, indicates that those patients given an exceedingly small homeopathic doses of whatever substance to which they are most allergic can provide significant relief within the first week of treatment. The authors called this unique method of individualizing medicines "homeopathic immunotherapy."

This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial showed that over 80% patients given a homeopathic remedy improved, while only 38% of patients given a placebo experienced a similar degree of relief. The patients were assessed by a homeopathic physician and a conventional physician. When the patients and doctors were asked if they felt the patient received the homeopathic medicine or the placebo, both the patients and the doctors tended to guess correctly.

How Can Homeopathy Help Asthma? Like with Traditional Chinese Medicine, each individual is analyzed for their specific symptoms and an appropriate therapy is chosen, not for the disease, but for the person displaying signs of health out of balance. This is a very important distinction, and, very generally speaking, one of the main differences between conventional and "complementary" approaches to health care. Please refer to the essay on Homeopathy in the Introduction to Modalities section. American Association of Naturopathic Physicians

"Homeopathic remedies are prescribed on an individual basis so that specific imbalances can be focused on and resolved. They work similar in action to a vaccine- in that a small amount of a substance stimulates the healing mechanisms of the immune system. The beauty of homeopathic treatment is that there are no worries about toxic side effects, relatively inexpensive, and works to repair the immune system and other imbalances in the body. Recent clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of homeopathic medicine in the treatment of asthma." Mark Stengler ND

Treatment of Allergies with Homeopathy
Dana Ullman, M.P.H.

Solid research have proven the effectiveness of homeopathic medicines in hayfever. Dr. David Taylor-Reilly, a professor and homeopath at the University of Glasgow in Scotland, published an important study in the Lancet (October 18, 1986) which showed that homeopathically prepared doses of 12 common flowers were very effective in reducing hayfever symptoms when compared with patients given a placebo. This same researcher published in the Lancet (12-10-94) another high caliber study on the homeopathic treatment of asthma. This double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial performed conventional allergy testing to determine what substance asthma sufferers were most allergic. Then, half of the subjects were given a homeopathic preparation of this substance, while the other half were given a placebo. Those people given the homeopathic medicine experienced a very significant improvement in their symptoms of asthma.

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Asthma and Magnesium Deficiency

Asthma symptoms can include 
wheezing (especially on expiration), coughing, and difficulty in breathing. A population-based clinical study of over 2,500 children aged 11 - 19 years found that low dietary magnesium intake may be associated with a risk of developing asthma. The same was found in a group of over 2,600 adults aged 18 - 70. In addition, some clinical studies suggest that intravenous and inhaled magnesium can help treat acute attacks of asthma in children aged 6 - 18 as well as adults. However, evidence from other clinical studies report that long-term oral magnesium supplementation does not lead to improved control in adult asthma.

Magnesium is nothing short of a miracle mineral in its healing effect on a wide range of diseases as well as in its ability to rejuvenate the aging body. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency may include agitation and anxiety, restless leg syndrome (RLS), sleep disorders, irritability, nausea and vomiting, abnormal heart rhythms, low blood pressure, confusion, muscle spasm and weakness, hyperventilation, insomnia, and even seizures. Approximately nine out of ten people will show dramatic improvements in the state of their health when they restore their magnesium levels and the very best way to do that is with ancient minerals magnesium drawn from an ancient inactive seabed 2 miles beneath the earth in Europe. With such “brine solutions” one can simply apply the concentrate to the skin or pour it into ones bath water and one will have a medical treatment of primordial priority. Nothing short of a miracle is to be expected in ones health status if one is ill when one increases the cellular levels of magnesium.

Glyconutrients - Phytoplankton Nutritional Support for Asthma

Phytoplankton Nutritional Support for Asthma Major universities are involved in the study of glyconutrients. Academic institutions throughout the United States now have laboratories focusing on glycobiology research, including the University of California, University of Oklahoma, San Francisco State University, University of Wisconsin, The Burnham Institute, The Scripps Research Institute, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The focus of their research involves a wide range of possible uses including cancer treatments, anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal agents as well as treatments for influenza, asthma, and other infections.

"Chelsea is 8 years old and has had severe food allergies and asthma her entire life. Last week she went to the doctor to refill her inhalant prescription for her asthma. He asked her to take deep breaths, and by the fifth one she needed the inhaler because she was wheezing so badly. The day after the visit, Chelsea began to take half an ounce of Marine Phytoplankton daily added to her juice.

After a week, she was able to endure over an hour of exercise on a trampoline without the use of her asthma medication, which would not have been possible a week prior. She visited the doctor again today and he said he could not explain why she was no longer wheezing and has reduced her need for the inhaler from several times a day to two times a day. Because of Marine Phytoplankton, her moods have significantly improved and she seems to be feeling much happier!" V. G.

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Asthma and Emphysema

population-based study of over 2,500 children aged 11 to 19 years found that low dietary magnesium intake may be associated with a risk of developing asthma. The same was found in a group of over 2,600 adults aged 18 to 70. In addition, some studies suggest that intravenous magnesium can help treat acute attacks of asthma in children aged 6 to 18 as well as adults. This may also be true for those with emphysema (also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD). A doctor will determine if this is necessary and appropriate in a hospital setting.

Pollen is also a remedy for hay fever and allergies. However it must be taken at least six weeks before the season begins and then continued throughout the season if it going to work.

Bee pollen has been effectively used down through the ages to rid allergy sufferers of their afflictions. Bee Pollen Treats Allergies This technique, called desensitization, was developed at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London soon after the turn of the century. The treatment consists of administering small amounts of the allergen to stimulate the patient's own immune system to produce antibodies that will eliminate the allergic reaction. It works rather like a vaccination does against childhood diseases. Desensitization is based on the premise that the administration of the allergen will cause the body to produce antibodies that will cancel out the effects of the offending substance when the patient is again exposed to it.

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