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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: is there a vaccine connection?

In a scientific study of SIDS, episodes of apnea (cessation of breathing) and hypopnea (abnormally shallow breathing) were measured before and after DPT vaccinations. "Cotwatch" (a precise breathing monitor) was used, and the computer printouts it generated (in integrals of the weighted apnea-hypopnea density -- WAHD) were analyzed. The data clearly shows that vaccination caused an extraordinary increase in episodes where breathing either nearly ceased or stopped completely. These episodes continued for months following vaccinations. Dr. Viera Scheibner, the author of the study, concluded that "vaccination is the single most prevalent and most preventable cause of infant deaths.

The Causal Link to Sudden Infant Death

Japan changed the start time for vaccinating from 3 months to two years and straight away their SIDS rate plummeted

Vaccine-SidsRaymond Obomsawin, M.D. - "Delay of DPT immunization until 2 years of age in Japan has resulted in a dramatic decline in adverse side effects. In the period of 1970-1974, when DPT vaccination was begun at 3 to 5 months of age, the Japanese national compensation system paid out claims for 57 permanent severe damage vaccine cases, and 37 deaths. During the ensuing six year period 1975-1980, when DPT injections were delayed to 24 months of age, severe reactions from the vaccine were reduced to a total of eight with three deaths. This represents an 85 to 90 percent reduction in severe cases of damage and death."

William C. Torch, M.D "These data show that DPT vaccination may be a generally unrecognized major cause of sudden infant and early childhood death, and that the risks of immunization may outweigh its potential benefits. A need for re-evaluation and possible modification of current vaccination procedures is indicated by this study." William C. Torch, M.D., Director of Child Neurology, Department of Paediatrics, University of Nevada School of Medicine

Dr Mendelsohn, M.D. - "My suspicion, which is shared by others in my profession, is that the nearly 10,000 SIDS deaths that occur in the United States each year are related to one or more of the vaccines that are routinely given children. The pertussis vaccine is the most likely villain, but it could also be one or more of the others."

Harris L. Coulter, PhD. - "Crib death" was so infrequent in the pre-vaccination era that it was not even mentioned in the statistics, but it started to climb in the 1950s with the spread of mass vaccination against diseases of childhood."

William Howard Hay, M.D. "I have run against so many histories of little children who had never seen a sick day until they were vaccinated and who, in the several years that have followed, have never seen a well day since. I couldn't put my finger on the disease they have. They just weren't strong. Their resistance was gone. They were perfectly well before they were vaccinated. They have never been well since." Vaccine Reaction Images from the CDC Warning: these are horrific images of severe vaccine reactions in babies and children.

Do you have a question about holistic health or need assistance? Email Shirley or call 323-522-4521

Parents Receive $2B Compensation Pay-outs

October 2007 New England Journal of Medicine : Parents receive $2B compensation pay-outs - Vaccine manufacturers have paid out nearly $2B in damages to parents in America whose children were harmed by one of the childhood jabs such as the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) or DPT (diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus). In all, around 2,000 families have received compensation payments that have averaged $850,000 each. There are a further 700 claims that are going through the pipeline. None of the claims is for autism as medical researchers say they have failed to find a link between the disease and the MMR vaccine, despite the initial findings made by Dr Andrew Wakefield. Instead they are for a wide spectrum of physical and mental conditions that are likely to have been caused by one of the vaccinations.

Around 7,000 parents have filed a claim of an adverse reaction with America's Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP). To win an award, the claimant must prove a causal link to a vaccine. As the medical establishment has refused to recognise any link to autism, the VICP has so far rejected 300 claims for this outright. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine, 2007; 357: 1275-9).

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), Autism and “Shaken Baby Syndrome (and and many other physiological and neurological complications) are currently epidemic throughout the world. Australia's Viera Scheibner, Ph.D., gave a presentation at Templin's Resort here October 21 which gave an explanation as to why this is happening to us. “Our breathing monitor scientifically established the causal link between vaccines and sudden infant death,” said Dr. Scheibner.

Dr. Scheibner's Scientifically Flawless Arguments

In 1985 Dr. Scheibner, a former principle research scientist for the government of Australia, and her husband electrochemical engineer Leif Karlsson invented the CotWatch breathing monitor for babies who are diagnosed “at risk” for SIDS, or “Cot Death” as it is known in Australia. Over the next three years, the couple monitored hundreds of babies and studied the event reports that their CotWatch produced. “By 1988 we knew that vaccines are killing babies,” said Dr. Scheibner Ph.D.

SIDS occurs among babies who have suffered a physical insult to their vulnerable bodies. Scheibner and Karlsson learned that the most common physical insult suffered by SIDS babies was routine vaccinations. Printouts from their monitor illuminated patterns that indicated critical days after vaccinations.

Video: Dr Tenpenny, What the CDC documents say about vaccines.

Once they had proven to themselves the causal link between vaccines and SIDS and had appropriately analyzed and documented their findings, Scheibner and Karlsson submitted their work to the medical community for peer review. Rather than attempt to duplicate their work or alter public health policy to protect infants, the majority of the medical community's members chose to protect the interests of vaccine manufacturers.

In 1988 the Japanese government began recommending that children not be vaccinated until age two. SIDS has returned to Japan since the government now recommends vaccinations be administered at three months.

Rather than be defeated by allopathic medicine's insistence upon protecting vaccine manufacturers interests over the lives of their tiniest patients, Dr. Scheibner went to work in what she refers as, “the salt mines -- science.” From approximately 7:30 p.m. until nearly midnight, Dr. Scheibner showed how her findings through CotWatch were supported in published medical literature.

The bottom line to Dr. Scheibner's scientifically flawless arguments is that those who are designing and implementing vaccine policy are doing so with the full knowledge that their policies are killing babies. Furthermore, published medical literature shows that vaccines are altering the genetic code of people and causing them to suffer damage to their immune systems which is making them vulnerable to numerous physical and psychological complications.

Important Vaccine Resource:

Harold E. Buttram, MD - Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccine as a Potential Cause of Encephalitis (Brain Inflammation) in Children.

THE POISONED NEEDLE - Suppressed Facts About Vaccination

Physicians are using a natural immune enhancing supplement before and after vaccination to help protect the integrity of the immune system.

Vaccine advocates cannot debate Dr. Scheibner, nor can they defend their motives because the very scientific journals upon which they depend for support, The Journal of the American Medical Association, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine have all published reports that support her findings. indings.

If the head of your local health department's vaccination program were to experience Dr. Scheibner's lecture and then continue advocating mass vaccination as sound public health policy, there would only be one question left to ask him: Why should you not be prosecuted for conspiracy to commit murder?

Dr. Scheibner has written two painstakingly referenced and footnoted books on the subject. “Vaccination: 100 Years of Orthodox Research Shows Vaccinations are a Medical Assault on the Immune System” and “ Behavioral Problems in Childhood: The Link to Vaccination

Do you have a question about holistic health or need assistance? Email Shirley or call 323-522-4521

Is It Child Abuse, Or Something Else Entirely?

report vaccine damageOften a child will be thought to have been abused, when in fact low vitamin C stores, combined with the stresses of vaccination or infection, may have produced the physical signs suggesting abuse. Bruising, subdural hematoma, brain swelling, retinal hemorrhages, and even rib fractures are all signs of severe vitamin C deficiency, or infantile scurvy; but the need for blood vitamin C analysis and appropriate treatment may not be appreciated. A recent article by C. Alan B. Clemetson, M.D., [1] described signs like retinal petechiae, subdural hemorrhages, and broken bones, often thought to be indications of child abuse or trauma. He believes that these signs could be a result of a variant form of Barlow’s disease.

In 1986 Connaught Laboratories a DPT vaccine manufacturer included in their product insert, "SIDS has occurred in infants following the administration of DPT. One study has showed no casual connection." Then in 1984 Wyeth Laboratories another DPT manufacturer included in their product insert "The occurrence of SIDS has been reported following administration of DPT. The significance of these reports is unclear."

Most vaccine-induced deaths in this country are listed as SIDS and SIDS statistics are NOT included in vaccine adverse reaction data, even if a child dies only a few hours after receiving inoculation.

100 Years of Orthodox Research shows that Vaccines Represent a Medical Assault on the Immune System" Viera Scheibner PhD

Eleven years ago, Dr Viera Scheibner became involved in the CotWatch programme, designed to monitor childhood breathing patterns. It soon became apparent that children reached a crisis condition coincidental to the day of vaccination. Indeed, Dr Scheibner has scientific evidence to show that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, or Cot Death, is a 'convenient bin in which to throw vaccine-damanged children'.

US Senators Fast-track a Bill to Protect Vaccine Manufacturers

Seven US Senators introduced a bill to protect vaccine manufacturers from thousands of pending federal lawsuits filed by parents of vaccine-damaged children. On the eve of an historic, billion-dollar world vaccination campaign, a leaked transcript ignites questions of vaccine safety and research corruption. Meanwhile, US senators fast-track a bill to protect vaccine manufacturers from litigation . With millions of lives at stake, and billions of dollars to lose, will a merger of philanthropy, big business and compromised science win an epic race between corporate agendas and medical ethics? In this world exclusive report, Byron Child exposes how the most powerful medical research bodies in the United States compromise their vaccine safety research for vested interests, as they assist in a global vaccine policy, while a bill looms in the background to protect it all.

Link Between DPT Vaccine, SIDS and Seizures

Studies are demonstrating a relationship between the DPT vaccine SIDS and Seizures. Dr. Harris L. Coulter, Ph.D.  found 239 seizures without an apparent predisposing cause among the children in the target population. One case, in particular, is worth describing: " The single seizure that occurred within three days of a DPT was in an 11-month old white girl who suffered a 2 ½ hour generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the evening of her third DPT-oral poliovirus vaccination. Her temperature during the seizure was 39 degrees C. (102.2 degrees F.). Results of CSF studies were normal. There was a transient left hemiparesis and right sixth nerve paresis. She was treated with phenobarbitol. At 6 years of age, while still taking phenobarbitol, she was experiencing rare focal left-sided seizures in the absence of fever and continued to have abnormal EEG tracings." However, this and the other 238 cases were explained away by the authors as part of the "expected incidence" of seizures in this population, a "background" incidence, as it were.

"So we have witnessed a steady rise in the incidence of SIDS, closely following the growth in childhood vaccinations. But information on the progress of this epidemic has been radically suppressed in the official literature. Whereas in earlier decades -- up to the end of the 1950s -- the medical establishment could recognize the fact of death after vaccination, more recently, as the official position has hardened, the earlier concessions have been withdrawn, and vaccinations of all kinds are now declared absolutely safe at all times and in all places. This has required some fancy footwork with the epidemiologic statistics"

A study undertaken at the University of California, Los Angeles, under the sponsorship of the Food and Drug Administration, and which has been confirmed by other studies, links DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) vaccination, and more specifically the pertussis component, to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This study found that 53 of 145 SIDS victims whose families were interviewed had received a DPT vaccination within 4 weeks. The authors conclude that "the excess of deaths in the 24 hours and first week following immunization and the absence of deaths in the fourth week following immunizations were significant." They call for more studies to substantiate their findings, despite the fact that this is already the third investigation, and all 3 have pointed in the same direction. (Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 1983. Possible temporal association between diphtheria - tetanus toxoid - pertussis vaccination and sudden infant death syndrome. Baraff, L.J., Ablon, W.J., Weiss, R.C.)

"Sudden Infant Death Syndrome has been reported following administration of DPT. The significance is unclear.85% of SIDS cases occur in the period 1 through 6 months of age, with the peak incidence at age 2 to 4 months." From the accompanying insert to Connaught Labs DPT shot.

"The evidence for indicting immunizations for SIDS is circumstantial, but compelling. However, the keepers of the keys to medical-research funds are not interested in researching this very important lead to the cause of an ongoing, and possibly preventable, tragedy. Anything that implies that immunizations are not the greatest medical advance in the history of public health is ignored or ridiculed. Can you imagine the economic and political import of discovering that immunizations are killing thousands of babies?" Dr William C. Douglass, M.D. (Honored twice as America's 'Doctor of the Year')

Dr Andrew Moulden BA, MA, MD, PhD. - "Baby M was a healthy child. On January 24th, 2007, at 15 months of age, this child received an MMR vaccination administered at Harbor Pediatrics, Orange County, California, as part of the standard well baby examination/follow-up. Within hours of vaccination this child began exhibiting symptoms and signs consistent with an adverse reaction to vaccination. He became withdrawn, listless, bradyphrenic, and bradykinetic. He exhibited increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli. He exhibited a progressive decrease in spontaneous vocalizations. He developed difficulties moving his arms and legs. He had testicular swelling. His facial expression and animation became flat. Subtle ischemic bulbar palsies emerged. He experienced emesis 2 days post vaccination. Child Michael's condition continued to deteriorate, neurobehaviorally, despite the families repeat visits to medical professionals seeking answers to Child MTM’s emerging clinical symptoms and signs. Ultimately, the deterioration progressed to seizures, apnea, intubation (respiratory failure in hospital), and brain death. This was a progressive decline in function over a 19 day period."

Do you have a question about holistic health or need assistance? Email Shirley or call 323-522-4521

Vaccine and Asthma, Is There a Connection?

Published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, a 1994 study found that children diagnosed with asthma (a respiratory ailment not unlike SIDS) were five times more likely than not to have received pertussis vaccine. Another study found that babies die at a rate eight times greater than normal within three days after getting a DPT shot. The three primary doses of DPT are given at two months, four months, and six months. About 85 percent of SIDS cases occur at one through six months, with the peak incidence at age two to four months.

In a recent scientific study of SIDS, episodes of apnea (cessation of breathing) and hypopnea (abnormally shallow breathing) were measured before and after DPT vaccinations. "Cotwatch" (a precise breathing monitor) was used, and the computer printouts it generated (in integrals of the weighted apnea-hypopnea density -- WAHD) were analyzed. The data clearly shows that vaccination caused an extraordinary increase in episodes where breathing either nearly ceased or stopped completely. These episodes continued for months following vaccinations. Dr. Viera Scheibner, the author of the study, concluded that "vaccination is the single most prevalent and most preventable cause of infant deaths."

Hepatitis B vaccine Connection to SIDS

MICHAEL BELKIN'S WRITTEN TESTIMONY TO CONGRESS   "My daughter Lyla Rose Belkin died on September 16, 1998 at the age of five weeks, about 15 hours after receiving her second Hepatitis B vaccine booster shot. Lyla was a lively, alert five-week-old baby when I last held her in my arms. Little did I imagine as she gazed intently into my eyes with all the innocence and wonder of a newborn child that she would die that night. She was never ill before receiving the Hepatitis B shot that afternoon. At her final feeding that night, she was extremely agitated, noisy and feisty -- and then she fell asleep suddenly and stopped breathing. The autopsy ruled out choking. The NY Medical Examiner ruled her death Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). But the NY Medical Examiner (Dr. Persechino) neglected to mention Lyla’s swollen brain or the hepatitis B vaccine in the autopsy report. The coroner spoke to my wife and I and our pediatrician (Dr. Zullo) the day of the autopsy and clearly stated that her brain was swollen. "

In a report in the JAMA (May 94 Vol 271 No 20) from a summary of a report from the Institute of Medicine which states a causal relationship with Anaphylaxis and Hepatitis B vaccine and cannot accept or reject a causal relation with Gullian-Barre Syndrome, DemyelinatingDisease of the Central Nervous System, Arthritis and SIDS. JAMA (May 94 Vol 271 No 20)

Hepatitis B Vaccine- Experimenting on our Children

by Rev. Alan Phillips

Vaccine injuries can have both civil and criminal ramifications. This paper explores civil management of vaccine injury for victims seeking compensation through the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program ( Part I ), and discusses the potentially devastating consequences that can befall a family when injuries caused by vaccines are mistakenly attributed to physical abuse inflicted by a caretaker.

Decades of studies published in the world’s leading medical journals have documented vaccine failure and serious adverse vaccine events, including death. Dozens of books written by doctors, researchers, and independent investigators reveal serious flaws in immunization theory and practice. Yet, incredibly, most pediatricians and parents are unaware of these findings.

Shaken Baby Syndrome or Vaccine-Induced Encephalitis?

New Scientist recently published a study that challenges the widely held view that only extreme violence causes shaken baby syndrome and calls into question the scientific evidence behind many convictions for killing infants. Many parents have been charged with murder for allegedly shaking their babies to death, but medical evidence suggests that vaccinations are to blame in a large number of these cases.

"Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) commonly describes a combination of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) as the triad of diagnostic criteria. In some, the presence of rib or other fractures is also taken as a sign of abuse. The basic issue to be reviewed here is whether or not in some instances in which a father, family member, or caretaker has been accused of causing the death of an infant or child from the SBS, the true cause of death was a catastrophic vaccine reaction. Few published studies on vaccine effects include before-and-after studies of immune parameters or brain function studies such as electroencephalograms, or long-term safety monitoring. Inadequate consideration has been given to the additive or synergistic adverse effects of multiple simultaneous vaccines, although in the case of toxic chemicals, two compounds together may be 10 times more toxic than either separately, or 3 compounds 100 times more toxic." Harold E. Buttram, MD Polio/DPT vaccine and SIDS

The only "SIDS" case I have had in my practise (20 yrs, 800 births) was a little boy named Sam....

Homeopathic Answer For Vaccination
Frank King, Jr., Ph.D.

Evidence is mounting on both sides of the vaccination issue. Minor symptoms to lifelong diseases can occur from either not being immunized, or more frighteningly, from being immunized! The legal ramifications can be equally, if not more, devastating. The truth is the more you study both sides of the issue, the more you see a lose-lose scenario. Actually the results of this vaccination perplexion is a new mental condition called “vaccination anxiety.” The good news is the benefits of homeopathy can turn this scenario into a win-win situation for everybody.  After the vaccinations: homeopathic support can help you and your child get through the milder aftereffects of many vaccinations.

What Every Parent Should Know BEFORE Their Childen Are Vaccinated What Every Parent Should Know BEFORE Their Children Are Vaccinated! Why are a growing number of parents and health care professionals around the world questioning vaccination? The controversy stems from the thousands of deaths and permanent disabilities attributed to vaccination annually, as well as the many published medical studies, government statistics, congressional testimonies, and other credible sources that directly contradict commonly held assumptions about vaccine safety and effectiveness.

Bart Classen, a Maryland physician, published data showing that diabetes rates rose significantly in New Zealand following a massive hepatitis B vaccine campaign in young children, and that diabetes rates also went up sharply in Finland after three new childhood vaccines were introduced.

In fall 1997, two influential professional magazines featured articles asking the question: Has the decrease of infectious diseases in childhood through the mass use of vaccines been replaced with an increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes and asthma? The Economist, a prestigious international magazine read by world leaders in government, business and public policy, and Science News, a magazine read by both health care This child died as a result of vaccines - pictures from the 
CDC about the side effects of vaccines professionals and the general public, explored the reported links between vaccines and chronic diseases in their November 22, 1997 issues.

This child died as a result of vaccines (CDC website)

 Congressman is calling for criminal penalties for any government agency that knew about the dangers of thimerosal in vaccines and did nothing to protect American children. Congressman Dan Burton (R-Indiana) during Congressional Hearing: "You mean to tell me that since 1929, we've been using Thimerosal, and the only test that you know of is from 1929, and every one of those people had mennigitis, and they all died?" For nearly an hour, Burton repeatedly asked FDA and CDC officials what they knew and when they knew it. (Thimerosal contains a related mercury compound called ethyl mercury. Mercury is a toxic metal that can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions.)

Excerpt from the Wall Street Journal, Friday, October 12, 2001 (front page)
Worries About Safety Of Its Anthrax Vaccine Put the Army in a Bind. Soldiers Ordered Inoculated Against Biological Threat Claim Harsh Side Effects. "...But soon after his first inoculation in February, the 29-years-old Mr. Nietupski showed up at an urgent -care facility with sores all over his mouth and throat. "The side of my tongue was all raw with little canker sores, and bloody mucus was coming out of my nose, " Mr. Nietupski says. His maladies, ultimately diagnosed as an autoimmune disorder in which his body accidentaly attacked itself, grew worse as he got the next two installements of the six-shot regime. Mr. Nietupski and several of the doctors who have examined him, believe the anthrax vaccine caused his severe reaction and may also be to blame for the blood clots Mr. Nietupski experienced in his legs months later."read the entire story in the Wall Street Journal, Friday, October 12, 2001 (front page) more on anthrax vaccines

Do you have a question about holistic health or need assistance? Email Shirley or call 323-522-4521

Victory Over Crib Death

by Lendon H. Smith, MD

This article summarizes the book The Infant Survival Guide: Protecting Your Baby from the Dangers of Crib Death, Vaccines and Other Environmental Hazards, by Lendon H. Smith, MD

We propose a new paradigm. The conventional paradigm, or system of thought about crib death, assumes the cause is unknown; and preventing it is hopeless; that SIDS is multifactorial, that several mechanisms can function, possibly several at the same time. Further, that no one of these may be fatal, but a combination can kill; and that one can only lower the risk and offer sympathy afterward. This approach to crib death is a cop-out and a failure.

The New Paradigm

(A) SIDS has one primary cause, which we identify, noting a very few exceptions.

(B) And we present the preventives that have achieved 100-percent success; whence the title: VICTORY OVER CRIB DEATH.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is an unexpected infant death, after which thorough autopsy and examination of the death scene and circumstances at time of death reveal no identifiable cause of death. SIDS risk begins about two weeks after birth. It is the leading cause of death in months one to six, declines rapidly after a peak in the third month when the immune status received from the mother is ebbing, and is rare after a year of age.

The definition “SIDS” is faulty, for two reasons.

(1) A syndrome is “the aggregate of symptoms associated with a disease condition.”[1] In crib death the only symptom is death itself. The “syndrome” designation opened the door for well-paid specialists to enjoy a nice lifestyle while investigating various “risk factors”--but ignoring the actual cause.

(2) The term “sudden” also is inapplicable; we show that certain precipitating events make crib death, and sometimes its probable date, predictable.

Before World War II, unexplained infant deaths were unusual. But after 1950, the governments of nearly all the rich industrialized countries (regarding Japanese practice, see later) required treatment of baby and child mattresses with flame retardant chemicals. Phosphorus and antimony were most commonly used; arsenic was sometimes added later as a preservative.[2]

Sadly, this well-intentioned measure was counterproductive in two ways.

(1) American SIDS deaths ballooned 400-fold; the toll has since declined.

(2) Among knowledgeable observers, it is well known that the number of baby deaths in residential blazes multiplied.[3] Statistical evidence, unfortunately, is not available.

The mechanism of death is identical in both types of tragedy: the generation of extremely poisonous gases from the chemicals that had been added—in all innocence. First, with regard to SIDS. Common, ordinarily harmless household fungi such as Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and certain microorganisms consume the phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, added as fire retardants and plastic softeners.

In consuming the chemicals, the fungi emit the heavier-than-air neurotoxic gases based on phosphine (PH3), arsine (AsH3)[4] and stibine (SbH3). These gases are about one thousand times more poisonous than carbon monoxide, which can kill a person in a closed garage with a running engine. They are about as toxic as Sarin, used in the 1980s Iran-Iraq war and in a Tokyo terrorist subway poisoning in 1995.

In probably the worst environmental disaster of the 20th century, these toxic gases have killed about one million victims of SIDS worldwide. Gas generation starts when a mattress, containing both the chemicals and the fungi, is warmed to body temperature in contact with the baby. Perspiration, dribble, urine, vomit, body heat and—as we shall see, critically important--high (alkaline) pH enable the fungi to grow and generate gas rapidly.

If a mattress contains any antimony, for example, there is invariably more than enough, when converted to stibine, to kill a baby. Breathed for an extended time even in minute quantity, these nearly odorless gases can interrupt the choline/acetylcholine transfer of nervous impulses from the brain to the heart and lungs. That shuts down the central nervous system; heart function and breathing stop. For another proposed mechanism of toxic gas death, see later.

Most of these gases (phosphine is an exception, details below) remain in a thin layer on the baby’s crib and diffuse away. But if enough gas accumulates to a fatal dose, the parents know nothing of it until their terrible discovery, typically the next morning. The attendant psychiatric morbidity from needless guilt reactions is enormous.[5] Every parent of a small baby or parent-to-be is wondering, “Will my child become a statistic? Will he/she have to die because of something I did or did not do?” Older children are less at risk because the gases cause them to develop a headache and call for help. For physiological reasons, adults are not put at risk by such gas generation. As to how these gases kill in house conflagrations, see later.

A fever, the God-given mechanism for killing dangerous organisms, can become a two-edged sword. A rise in the temperature of mattress and bedding in contact with the baby from 98.6 F to 104 F can make the fungi more active and thus increase toxic gas generation tenfold or more.[6] Many boy babies have a faster metabolic rate and inhale a greater volume of air than girls, and their slightly higher temperature causes fungi to generate gases more rapidly. The result is higher SIDS risk: in one study, the SIDS rate for boys was 30 percent higher than for girls.[7]

In some cases, fungal growth in PVC, polyvinyl chloride, a soft plastic commonly used as the mattress covering, was associated with development of a pink stain in the shape of the sleeping infant. Such mattresses were always found to be generating one or more of the gases. (Richardson asked, “Must babies still die?”) Pink stain often results from, and demonstrates presence of, this type of fungal growth. There is even a reference in the Bible to pinkish mildew, and a health warning given (Leviticus 14:B).

To prevent crib death, an appropriate gas-impermeable barrier is needed between mattress and baby. An inexpensive slip-on mattress cover called BabeSafe®--invented by New Zealander T.J. Sprott, PhD--came to market in New Zealand in 1996. Among one hundred thousand or so babies sleeping on this/these product(s) there and elsewhere, not one crib death has been reported.[8] [9] [10] An equally successful alternative is to wrap the entire mattress using thick, clear polyethylene plastic; see instructions with supply details at the end of this document.

Until BabeSafe® is obtained, or when its use might not be feasible as while traveling, mothers can reduce (but not eliminate) the risk of SIDS by elevating the head end of the crib an inch or two, letting any of these heavier than air toxic gases flow to the foot end--and dissipate away to the floor. A rolled towel prevents the baby from sliding. According to an informal test reported in the 1960s by an American metropolitan newspaper, that procedure prevented any crib deaths. We could not track down the source. The result, mysterious at the time, is now readily explained by the research outlined above. Also, ensure that baby sleeps face up. A bassinet with impervious sides would trap gases.

Historical Background

The fungal generation of arsines in conditions of mildew has been known for well over a hundred years. This killed thousands of children in Europe in the 1800s; the Italian analytical chemist Gosio discovered its cause in 1892.[11] [12] Dr. Sprott proposed a toxic gas explanation for SIDS in 1986.[13] He is a consulting chemist and forensic scientist; his success, notably in certain criminal cases, earned him great fame and respect in New Zealand. In 1989, Mr. Barry A. Richardson, a widely published British consulting scientist and expert in materials degradation, independently came to the same conclusion, and then further refined and elaborated the connection to crib death in the early 1990s.[14] [15] Dr. Sprott, who generously cooperated with us in writing our book and this article, corroborated and strengthened the argument in 1996 in his compelling book, The Cot Death Cover-up?, cited above.

Also in 1989, British nonprofessional researcher Peter Mitchell, deeply concerned at the high SIDS rate in Britain, made a further landmark discovery. Studying records of hundreds of cases, he found that the risk of crib death doubles from a mother’s first baby to her second and doubles again from the second to the third baby. Others had noticed this factor, but couldn’t explain higher SIDS risk among a mother’s later babies.

The Toxic Gas Explanation for SIDS makes it quite clear: the fungal spores are established during prior use; and so gas production starts sooner and in greater volume. Mr. Mitchell also found that infants of poor single mothers, typically young and immature, have previously used mattresses and bedding because they cannot afford new ones. Because of this and the high stresses of daily living, they have seven times greater risk than babies of wealthy parents, who almost always buy new mattresses and bedding for their babies.[16]

Similarly, in Taiwan from 1988 to 1992, babies born second to fourth were 70 percent more likely to die of SIDS than the first; risk for fifth or later babies was up 130 percent.[17] The authors of this report didn’t know about toxic gases, and so they couldn’t understand their finding. Only the toxic gas hypothesis can explain these statistics--which almost certainly apply to such countries as the U.S. and Canada.

The two discoveries, (1) One hundred percent protection by BabeSafe® and (2) the doubled, then quadrupled risk in subsequent babies, appear to destroy theories blaming SIDS on vaccinations (see later), poor nutrition, rebreathing of CO2, or any medical cause. Also, as Dr. Sprott explains, the totality of our knowledge about SIDS makes it clear that there is only one cause.

As would be expected if toxic gases are the true cause, reducing babies’ exposure to them lowered crib deaths. This is why face-up sleeping reduced SIDS by removing the baby’s face somewhat from the mattress. Toxic gas output from infants’ mattresses declined rapidly in Britain after Mr. Richardson publicized his hypothesis in June 1989, and again in December 1994 after he and Dr. Sprott dramatized the problem in “The Cook Report,” a highly-rated program on BBC television. Parents bought new mattresses that lacked the potential for toxic gas creation, or properly wrapped old ones. Manufacturers quietly began to remove the chemicals, which fire safety regulations had required.[18] Before that, the SIDS rate in Britain had been rising; it had reached a tragic new peak in 1986-88 when more phosphorus was added to baby mattresses.[19] It fell for the first time immediately after Richardson’s 1989 announcement.

The ongoing, first-ever decline in Britain’s SIDS rate accelerated in December 1991, after “Back-to-Sleep” publicity urged parents to put babies to sleep face up.[20] [21] The toxic gas hypothesis explains the nearly worldwide drop in crib deaths, which followed that campaign.[22] Incidentally, New Zealand was the first country to make face-up sleeping a national program, after research there proved its effectiveness. Some babies are known to have rolled from side to prone before dying.[23] Yet, many SIDS victims have died sleeping face-up. The London Stationery Office reported, of 305 SIDS babies put to bed face-up, 105 were found dead still lying face-up.[24] This refutes the claim that face-up sleeping is the answer to SIDS.

SIDS incidence in Britain (0.7 per thousand live births) is now 70 percent lower than 1986-88, when it was 2.3 per 1,000. It is slightly below the rate of about 0.75 per thousand (totaling about 3,000 a year, on average, around eight now-avoidable SIDS tragedies every night) in America, where parents follow advice of health agencies to varying degrees. As explained below, there are many more crib deaths on each weekend night than each weeknight.

The British Limerick Commission investigated and rejected the toxic gas hypothesis.[25] When read carefully, state Mr. Richardson, Dr. Sprott and Dr. Michael Fitzpatrick,[26] the tests reported in the commission’s analysis clearly confirm the hypothesis[27]--as demonstrated by the success of proper mattress wrapping and BabeSafe® (not one crib death).[28] But the Commission’s final condensed summary, the only report that citizens and physicians read, did not accurately state those findings. The commissioners, who were already biased against the theory, knew that revealing the truth could subject the British government to millions of pounds in liability lawsuits. Such lying for financial reasons, sadly, is the rule rather than the exception throughout medicine and science.

The facts sketched out above will surprise the "experts" who for years shouted "Back to Sleep." Sleeping face up is a partial solution because it makes the baby less likely to inhale heavier-than-air toxic gases generated in the mattress, and that fact explains the worldwide decline in SIDS after the “back to sleep” campaign. But it is far from the total answer, mainly because babies can also absorb the toxic gases, especially phosphine, through their skin. Also, phosphine is only slightly heavier than air, and so a baby can die from inhaling that gas despite sleeping face up.[29] Babies have died of SIDS in almost any position; one died in his mother’s arms.[30] Our interpretation: when she picked her baby up, he was already dying from gas exposure.

Ample Further Evidence Supports the Toxic Gas Explanation.

(a) After near misses, monitors of breathing and heartbeat confirm the described sequence of events.[31] And in SIDS autopsies, evidence of lasting cerebral hypoxia (severe lack of oxygen in the brain) both before and after birth corroborates the mechanism.[32] [33] (See proposed additional mechanism, below.)

(b) The body tissues of crib death babies and the mattresses on which they died contain high concentrations of antimony, the source of stibine gas, whereas bodies of babies who died of other causes and non-SIDS inducing mattresses contain little or no detectable antimony.[34] [35] Remnants of phosphorus and arsenic are always present in the body naturally, and so tracking them is not meaningful.[36]

(c) The hair of living babies contains 10 to 100 times more antimony than their parents’ hair,[37] demonstrating that they were exposed to gas generated from their mattresses.[38] And about 95 percent of 200 consecutive SIDS babies in a 1989 test sample died on used mattresses.[39]

(d) The decline in SIDS in Britain, cited above, itself powerfully supports the toxic gas explanation.

A Proposed Extension of the Toxic Gas Theory.

Repeated, at times severe, episodes of hypoxemia (insufficient aeration of arterial blood) or asphyxia, or both, occur in infants who are at increased risk for SIDS.[40] [41] Cyanosis, blue color of lips and nail beds, which is very common in SIDS victims, results from lack of enough oxygen.[42]

Hypoxia is an abnormal condition resulting from a decrease in oxygen supplied to or utilized by body tissues.[43] Derrick Lonsdale, MD, calls it hypo-oxidative metabolism; it kills tissues. “Any cell (except erythrocytes, red blood cells) made hypoxic for a sufficient period is irreversibly injured.”[44]

“Regarding injury to the brain, neuroscientists use the terms hypoxia and ischemia interchangeably…. [Ischemia is a lack of oxygen-carrying blood flow in an organ or tissue.] In local ischemia, cells in the center of the ischemic zone are damaged most rapidly; cells in the surrounding fluid (the ischemic penumbra) receive some oxygen from other blood vessels and thus are less hypoxic.”[45]

The killing of tissue leading to SIDS can take the form of apoptosis, i.e. programmed cell suicide, or “cellular hari-kari,”[46] which is commonly associated with diseases of aging. Apoptosis wreaks greater damage at higher body temperatures.[47] That fits our proposal, below, that inhalation of toxic gases—concentration of which is higher with a fever--initiates apoptosis possibly leading to crib death. Cells at the center of the hypoxic area can die, instead, by necrosis, i.e. rupturing and spilling the cellular contents into the extracellular fluid.[48]

Karen A. Waters, MD, et al, at Montreal Children’s Hospital found neuronal apoptotic cells in 79 percent of 29 SIDS victims they examined, but in no control cases.[49] Apoptosis in two to three percent of neurons can signify a cell regression rate of 25 percent per day;[50] they found apoptosis in more than 20 percent of such cells, implying rapid cell death. Dr. Waters continues, “In SIDS victims, neuronal loss has been reported in the brainstem arcuate nucleus,[51] a region thought to be involved in control of respiration… And we found significant neuronal apoptosis in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, a region involved in autonomic and respiratory control [i.e. in making breathing an ‘automatic’ process not requiring conscious control].

“Repeated episodes of hypoxemia first lead to confirmed neuronal apoptosis in select vulnerable brain regions. Then comes the disappearance of a significant number of cells, and eventually impaired function.”[52] Inhalation of ammonia from the baby’s feces can aggravate hypoxia/hypoxemia. Ammonia combines with and inactivates carbon dioxide; the baby needs free CO2 to trigger the breathing reflex.[53]

Dr. Waters’ research team found evidence of an unidentified serious insult, probably within 24-48 hours of death. Conventional (Paradigm 1) researchers have long written of hypoxia causing crib death, but they have not always studied its sources. We propose that the referenced insult is inhalation of toxic gases night after night. This offers a plausible mechanism of death, concurrent with that presented earlier: interruption of choline/acetylcholine transfer of nervous impulses from the brain to the heart and lungs. If this toxicity destroys the nerve function, the two explanations become one.

Apoptosis, interestingly, is also an important homeostatic, health promoting process during central nervous system development. [54]

Hypoxia also promotes formation of tiny, electrically imbalanced particles known as free radicals (also called oxidants). A free radical is an atom or atom group carrying an unpaired electron in its outer ring; as a result, free radicals are unbalanced and highly reactive. They dart about the body damaging cells; and any molecule they meet, in turn becomes a free radical,[55] potentially starting a chain reaction that could damage tissues and perhaps cause SIDS.

Other free radicals reach our bodies through toxins in the air, water, and food, or are generated inside us as part of our defensive response to infection or other stress. In excess, they promote diseases of all kinds and aging.[56] [57] An antioxidant molecule donates an electron so as to quench a free radical.

All this valuable research is helpful, but it does not explain the ultimate cause. As Dr. Sprott points out, what is it that brings all these conditions about? They do not just happen! The common thread is the poisoning, and all the symptoms and findings reported above are completely explained by gaseous poisoning with a “nerve gas.”

The toxic gas explanation therefore casts new light on poorly understood aspects of these unmitigated family tragedies. Crib death is most common in industrialized countries where baby mattresses contain any of the three listed chemicals. In countries such as Japan, Hong Kong and the Pacific Islands, people use for their beds either chemicals-free cotton or simple woven floor mats.[58] Fungi are ubiquitous.[59] But without chemicals to consume--either artificially added or naturally present in bedding--the fungi create no toxic gases. Preservatives and fire retardants in Japan use safe boron; SIDS is slowly rising there as parents adopt Western style mattresses and bedding.[60]

Toxic gases arise from sheepskins and other "natural" bedding such as tea-tree bark fibers, which are widely used throughout Australia and New Zealand. The New Zealand Cot Death Study, 1987-90, found that half of all crib deaths occurred on sheepskins.[61] Depending on the soil on which the sheep graze, their skins can contain phosphorus, arsenic and/or antimony, often in high concentration. Tea-tree bark normally contains phosphorus, since the trees excrete toxins into their bark.[62]

Recent research, presented for the first time at the SIDS 2000 conference (Auckland, New Zealand, February 2000) by professor Bill Cullen from University of British Columbia, proved the generation of an arsine from sheepskins containing arsenic. The sheepskins tested were provided to Dr. Cullen by Dr. Sprott, who had obtained them from parents who had lost to SIDS babies sleeping on the very same sheepskins.

What About Nutrition?

Poor nutrition has never been proved to increase SIDS risk, and good nutrition, including breastfeeding, has not been proved to lower SIDS risk. Mothers who start bottle-feeding early typically live in low-income families and re-use baby mattresses.[63] (Note: Massive intake of vitamin C to stamp out SIDS--see later--was chemical, not nutritional.)

Proponents of nutritional theories relate incidence to geographical areas and census data showing low and high levels of one or more nutrients. But they have not suggested a realistic manner in which death would occur: the guillotine, which does the actual killing. Regions with higher concentrations of dietary iodine, e.g., appear to have lower SIDS risk than areas with less dietary iodine.[64] Similarly, low dietary thiamine has been blamed.[65] [66] [67] Derrick Lonsdale, MD, halted babies’ apneas and prevented what he judged to be inevitable SIDS deaths by supplementing thiamine.[68] In a letter he told of a baby who nearly became a SIDS casualty from a slow carbon monoxide leak, which would have killed but for being turned off.[69]

Correlation doesn’t prove causation, and epidemiological findings prove nothing. Epidemiology is the study of all the elements contributing to the occurrence or non-occurrence of a disease in a population. Proof of any nutritional theory of SIDS would require:

(1) Collection of tissue samples from SIDS babies and from infants who died of known causes.

(2) Consistently lower iodine (or thiamine, etc.) would have to be found in the SIDS autopsies.

(3) A mechanism would have to be proposed and supported.

(4) Most difficult: in light of Peter Mitchell’s findings given earlier, crib death risk caused by such nutrient deficiency would have to be consistently twice as high in a mother’s second baby and twice as high again for her third baby. In fact, most families maintain their nutritional practices about constant throughout their child-rearing years.

(5) And the reason for insufficiency of a nutrient to cause such upward steps in risk would have to be proposed and supported.

Poor nutrition tends to accompany low-income status, and that leads to re-use of fungus-infected bedding. In California, SIDS incidence in 1972 ranged from 0.5l among Chinese and Japanese Americans who consume iodine-rich seaweed, to 5.93 among Native Americans who ingest little iodine.[70] [71] One could reason that the incomes of the Oriental Americans were much higher than the Native Americans’ and that they therefore didn’t resort to used baby mattresses.

But then, a U.S. map of SIDS mortality in 1984 showed incidence at least twice as high in the Pacific Northwest as in California and the Pacific Southwest.[72] That would be difficult to explain on the basis of family incomes. Harold Foster, PhD, shows that areas of low selenium, including the Northwest, are areas of high SIDS risk. There still is no mechanism of killing.

So the explanation advanced by Mr. Richardson, Dr. Sprott, and Mr. Peter Mitchell, and our enlargement of the theory do not clarify everything. But they may explain over 95 percent of crib deaths.

There can be exceptions:

(1) Iron overload can “literally tear apart” babies, both of whose parents have hemochromatosis.[73] [74] Disease organisms and cancer microbes feed on iron, a potent catalyst for generation of extremely damaging free radicals--and starve without it.[75] And so iron-heavy infant formulas and iron drops can cause truly sudden death in event of botulism, which might not otherwise be serious.[76] [77] High tissue iron concentrations may also lower resistance to fever and gas-promoting infection in babies not protected against the gases, and raise susceptibility to tissue damage throughout life.[78] This mechanism of killing isn’t related directly to the nutrient or toxin.

(2) Microwave warming of breast milk, baby formula and baby food weakens their infection-protective features, adversely affects the blood,[79] [80] and could make baby more susceptible to a given level of toxic gases. Microwaving also generates free radicals.[81] Resulting fevers would increase concentration of toxic gases.

(3) Excess sodium or unusually high concentrations of poorly absorbed manufactured thiamine, folic acid and vitamin B12[82] [83] have been found in crib death autopsies. High lead levels have been reported in blood.[84] BabeSafe® or proper mattress wrapping would appear to circumvent each of these possible mechanisms.


Smoke residues from American cigarettes are “laced with sugar and dupe the gut into expecting food, triggering insulin release.”[85] (Japanese and South African cigarettes, among others, do not contain sugar and toxic additives.[86] [87] The late, renowned internist and cardiologist Moses M. Suzman, MD, of Johannesburg confirmed the statement about South African cigarettes and said that South African blacks, despite heavily smoking unfiltered cigarettes, do not develop lung cancer.[88]) The smoke residues inactivate certain enzymes and induce peroxidation (formation of excess hydrogen peroxide) in the baby’s blood plasma,[89] or the cadmium in cigarette smoke catalyzes oxidation in the babies’ lung tissue when there is a deficiency of vitamin E and selenium.[90] Either mechanism makes babies more susceptible to gaseous death if the mattress is generating the gases.[91] [92]

Maternal smoking associates itself with higher SIDS risk in not properly protected shared beds: relative risk was 9.25 (95% confidence intervals 2.31 to 34.02).[93] (Babies of mothers who smoked were over nine times likelier to be victims of SIDS than those of nonsmoking mothers. Confidence intervals are a statistical refinement.) BabeSafe® cannot protect babies against other damage inflicted by cigarette smoke.

In Britain, smoking was much more common in the 1930s-1940s than now. But crib death was virtually non-existent, because fire retardant chemicals weren’t added to mattresses until after the war. In Russia and Yugoslavia, despite heavy parental smoking SIDS scarcely exists. Rubber sheeting and cotton mattresses do not permit toxic gases to form and reach the baby.[94] Also, Russian parents have long swaddled babies heavily to keep them immobile, while they go off to farm or factory.[95] Such wrapping would increase SIDS risk through gas generation if the babies were exposed to it (see below).

The apparent link between smoking and SIDS is, however, in large part simply an association. Crib death has a strong socio-economic bias and so does the incidence of smoking. There is little if any cause-and-effect association. Smoking is more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups, and these people are also more likely to use old, pre-used mattresses.

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